January 5, 2018


Combined Hormonal Contraceptives Combined oral contraceptives containing a fixed amount of an oestrogen and a progestogen in each active tablet are termed ‘monophasic’; those with varying […]
January 5, 2018

Treatment of vaginal and vulval conditions

Preparations for vaginal atrophy (Topical HRT) OESTROGENS, TOPICAL: Indications: Atrophic Vaginitis associated with Menopause, Atrophy of Vulva, Dyspareunia due to Menopause-associated Vulvovaginal Atrophy. Contraindications: Activated Protein […]
January 3, 2018

Drugs used in Obstetrics

Prostaglandins and oxytocics are used to induce abortion or induce or augment labour and to minimise blood loss from the placental site. They include oxytocin, carbetocin, ergometrine, and the prostaglandins. All induce uterine contractions with varying degrees of pain according to the strength of contractions induced.
January 2, 2018

Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and anti-oestrogens

Hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones and anti-estrogens   Anti-oestrogens CLOMIFENE CITRATE (Clomiphene Citrate): Indications: Female Infertility, Ovulation Stimulation Contraindications: Disease of Liver, Intracranial Lesion, Ovarian Cyst, […]
January 2, 2018

Male sex hormones Antagonists

Androgens cause masculinisation; they may be used as replacement therapy in castrated adults and in those who are hypogonadal due to either pituitary or testicular disease. In the normal male they inhibit pituitary gonadotrophin secretion and depress spermatogenesis. Androgens also have an anabolic action which led to the development of anabolic steroids. When given to patients with hypopituitarism they can lead to normal sexual development and potency but not to fertility.
December 30, 2017

Female sex hormones

Oestrogens are necessary for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics; they also stimulate myometrial hypertrophy with endometrial hyperplasia. In terms of oestrogenic activity natural oestrogens (estradiol (oestradiol), estrone (oestrone), and estriol (oestriol)) have a more appropriate profile for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) than synthetic oestrogens (ethinylestradiol (ethinyloestradiol) and mestranol). Tibolone has oestrogenic, progestogenic and weak androgenic activity.
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