The neurotransmitters basically are these endogenous chemicals that are going to transmit the signal from a neuron to the target cell across a synapse.
So after crossing the synapses, these neurotransmitters are going to be released in the synaptic cleft and after that they’re going to be transmitting these signals from a neuron to the target cell across the synapse.
Now neurotransmitters are packed into synaptic vesicles and are released into the synaptic cleft where they bind to the receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse, so these neurotransmitters have some packaging, and they’re released into the synaptic cleft by the process of the exocytosis then they are going to be binding to the receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse then the release of those neurotransmitters usually follow an arrival of the action potential at the synapse. So, this process is mediated, or it begins with the action potentials.
We have some classic neurotransmitters present. Mono amines, which are the biogenic amines, which include the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, then we have the amino acids, amino acids are also including the gamma amino-butyric acid, we have the glycine, glutamate and we have the aspartate. So these three are the major new classical neurotransmitters, which are the acetylcholine, monoamines, and amino acids.
Then we have central neurotransmitters. So, these are going to be including the peptides and some miscellaneous So, peptides are going to be including the substance P, we have the BiP peptides and we have the opioid peptides, then we have the purines which are included in other and other neurotransmitters are the purines, the adenosine ATP, histamine and nitric oxide.
Basically, this acetylcholine is the first neurotransmitter that is identified. It has many excitatory effects in the central nervous system. So, this neurotransmitter has the excitatory effects, it has the nicotinic and muscarinic effects.
So, nicotinic is the inotropic and muscarinic is the G protein coupled after the binding to the G protein molecules or the coupling with the G proteins is going to be transmitting its muscarinic effects.
And it has an important role in the cognitive function, especially the memory. So, in learning processes, this is really important. Acetylcholine has the excitatory effects on the central nervous system. Now, if there is a loss of these cholinergic neurons, this could lead to a human disease.