Basic Concepts of Healthcare Quality

“Degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with professional knowledge.”  – Institute of Medicine (IOM)

There are three aspects of Healthcare Quality

  1. Measurable Quality
  2. Appreciative Quality
  3. Perceptive Quality

Measurable Quality

  • Compliance with, or adherence to standards.
  • Standards may take the form of practice guidelines or protocols, or they may establish acceptable expectations for organization performance.
  • At their best, however, standards serve as guidelines for excellence.

Appreciative Quality

  • Comprehension and appraisal of excellence beyond minimal standards and criteria, requiring judgments of skilled, experienced practitioners and sensitive caring persons.
  • Peer review bodies rely on the judgments of like professionals in determining the quality and nonquality of specific patientpractitioner interaction.

Perceptive Quality

  • Degree of excellence that is perceived and judged by the recipient or the observer of care rather than by the provider of care.
  • Quality as perceived by the patient is generally based more on the degree of caring expressed by physicians, nurses, and other staff than on the physical environment and technical competence.

According to Avedis Donabedian, structure, process, and outcome are merely kinds of information we use to draw inferences about the quality of care. 

STRUCTURE

The arrangement of parts of care system or elements that facilitate care. 

  • Resources 
  • Equipment 
  • Number of staff
  • Qualification of staff
  • Work space

PROCESS

Refer to the procedures, methods, means or sequence of steps for providing or delivering care, producing outcomes.

  • Clinical process
  • Care delivery process

OUTCOME

Refers to the results of care, adverse or beneficial

CLINICAL

  • Short term
  • Complication

FUNCTIONAL

  • Long-term health status
  • Activities of daily living

PERCEIVED

  • Patient / family satisfaction
Obaid

Pharmacist, CPHQ, CHQO, Quality Coordinator, Chemotherapy Preparation incharge. Graduated pharmacy school in 2009 I stood with my classmates as we recited the “Oath of a Pharmacist” in. There is one particular vow that stood out to me as we recited the Oath and I embrace this vow, “I will apply my knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of my ability to assure optimal outcomes for my patients.” I love being a pharmacist because it allows me to use my knowledge, abilities, and talents to improve patient outcomes in the community hospital in which I am employed as the pharmacy clinical coordinator.

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