Medical Quiz

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    • #49023
      Jacqueline Lee
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      Blood Pressure the force of the blood against the vessel wall.
      Cardiac Output the volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle each minute
      Total Peripheral Resistance the amount of friction blood encounters during flow through blood vessels.
      blood viscosity the friction red blood cells encounter when moving past each other.
      Blood pressure would INCREASE as a result of a DECREASE in __________. blood vessel diameter
      Which of the following changes would produce the greatest change in total peripheral resistance? 10% change in vessel diameter
      During exercise, cardiac output may increase by more than 170% to meet the body’s increased O2 demands. This increase in cardiac output increases blood pressure. But the accompanying increase in arterial pressure is relatively small—only about 40%. What limits this increase in blood pressure so that it doesn’t reach dangerously high levels during exercise? Vasodilation causes arterial diameter to increase in the exercising skeletal muscle
      Choose the answer which best explains how vasoconstriction can cause increased blood pressure. Vasoconstriction increases peripheral resistance (also called vascular resistance).
      Choose the best answer, based on what you know about the path of blood flow. The right side because it has the job of pumping blood through the constricted pulmonary vessels
      Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located? carotid sinus and aortic arch
      If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)? increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity
      Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles? decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
      Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following? an increase in heart rate and contractility
      A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following? an increase in heart contractility
      In the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by __________. blood pressure
      The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________. capillary; interstitial fluid
      Which of the following would reflect the typical net hydrostatic pressure (HP) at the arterial end of the capillary? 34 mm Hg
      The colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary is caused by __________. proteins in the blood
      Which net pressure draws fluid into the capillary? net osmotic pressure
      Reabsorption of fluid into the capillary takes place at the arterial end or venous end of the capillary? venous
      William may be a candidate for medication to lower his blood pressure. There are several medications with different mechanisms. One that might be used is a beta (β) blocker. How does this medication lower blood pressure? The heart rate will be lower, which will allow more time for filling and decrease workload on the heart, thus lowering blood pressure
      Another type of medication that may be used to help lower blood pressure is known as a calcium channel blocker. What do you think the mechanism of action is for these drugs? Both 1 & 2 are true of calcium channel blockers
      Another type of medication that may be used to help lower blood pressure is classified as a diuretic. Many people refer to these as water pills. William mentioned that his mother took them for her hypertension. Why would a diuretic help lower blood pressure? Diuretics increase water loss in the urine, which decreases blood volume and blood pressure
      Other treatment options to help lower blood pressure are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors. What is the mechanism of these medications? ACE inhibitors block enzymes necessary to form angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor. When angiotensin II is not produced, blood vessels vasodilate which lowers blood pressure.
      Another type of drug used to help lower blood pressure is known as an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Use your knowledge from the previous question to identify the mechanism for these medications. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists will prevent cells from responding to angiotensin II, which will trigger vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure.
      Determine fluid movement when hydrostatic pressure exceeds colloid osmotic pressure at the arteriolar end of the capillary. Water is pushed off the capillary by filtration
      Which circuit has the greatest peripheral resistance? systematic circuit
      Which pressure is created by the presence of large proteins in the blood, such as albumin? colloid osmotic pressure
      A cerebrovascular accident (CVA, or stroke) can occur due to a blockage in the: basilar artery
      When arterial blood pressure is measured in the arm with a sphygmomanometer, which vessel is used to measure pressure? brachial artery
      Which of the following arteries has the smallest diameter? metarteriole
      Hypertension is defined as: high blood pressure
      What is edema? swelling
      Cross-sectional area increases as arteries branch into smaller vessels, causing the blood to flow more slowly. true
      Increase or decrease in blood oxygen concentration triggers the baroreceptor reflex, which is regulated by the medulla of the brainstem. false
      Which of the following vessels can be used for taking the pulse? brachial artery
      Archie took several deep breaths of air. By breathing deeply, what mechanism did he assist to return venous blood to his heart? respiratory pump
      Which of the following decreases heart rate, and thus cardiac output and blood pressure? acetylcholine
      Select the correct relationship between peripheral resistance and blood pressure. As peripheral resistance increases, blood pressure increases
      The average pressure in the systemic arteries during an entire cardiac cycle is known as: mean arterial pressure (MAP)
      Which division of the aorta gives rise to the right and left common iliac arteries? descending abdominal aorta
      Which of the following represents the systemic flow of most blood? artery, arteriole, capillary bed, venule, vein
      Which of the following will decrease peripheral resistance? increase in vessel radius
      The vertebral and external jugular veins drain into the subclavian vein. true
      Cerebrospinal fluid drains into: dural sinuses
      Which of the following arteries gives rise to all others listed? axillary artery
      Increased sympathetic activity leads to vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure. false
      Which of the following veins does NOT drain directly into the inferior vena cava? hepatic portal vein
      The hepatic portal system delivers blood to the hepatic portal vein in the spleen. false

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