Normal Meconium Passing Was Noted (MCQ)


A 5-day-old boy, delivered by cesarean for fetal bradycardia, was evaluated for nonbilious vomiting since birth and loss of 10% of his birth weight (2,980 g). Normal meconium passing was noted. An upper gastrointestinal X-ray analysis was ordered (showin to the right)

What is the likely diagnosis?

  • A. Hirschsprung's Disease.
  • B. Inguinal Hernia.
  • C. Meconium ileus.
  • D. Duodenal Atresia.
  • E. Intestinal Malrotation.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Clinical Presentation of Meconium Ileus (MCQ)


A female infant was born by vaginal delivery at 33 weeks and 5 days of gestational age with respiratory distress and severe abdominal distension and bilious vomiting.

The plain radiograph is shown to the right.

What is the likely diagnosis?

  • A. Meconium ileus.
  • B. Duodenal Atresia.
  • C. Hirschsprung's Disease.
  • D. Inguinal Hernia.
  • E. Intestinal Malrotation.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Patient History of Breast Cancer (MCQ)


A patient, a 30-year-old woman, with family history of her cousin and grandmother both had breast cancer, but they are on her father's side. Verifying her family history reveals that her paternal grandmother had breast cancer at age 50. A first cousin (daughter of her father's sister) was diagnosed with breast cancer a year ago at age 42. Her father is in good health at 62. She has two older sisters, aged 33 and 35 years, who are also worried about their risk.

What is the next step of choice?

  • A. Recommend a risk-reducing oophorectomy.
  • B. Recommend a risk-reducing mastectomy.
  • C. Measurement of serum CA-125 level on this patient.
  • D. BRCA1/ BRCA2 testing to this patient's first cousin who was diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • E. Prescribe prophylactic tamoxifen.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Help in diagnosis of Dengue fever (MCQ)


​What is the name if the test where you apply a blood pressure cuff and inflate it to the midpoint between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures for five minutes. and the test is positive for diagnosis of Dengue fever is there are more than 10 to 20 petechiae per square inch?

  • A. Prothrombin time.
  • B. Plasma fibrinogen.
  • C. Tourniquet test.
  • D. Activated partial thromboplastin time.
  • E. Clot retraction.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on


About Docusate:

It's a stool softener medication that is used in prevention of straining during defecation and constipation associated with hard, dry stools; relief of occasional constipation.

Docusate is used for:

  • Constipation.
  • Ear wax removal.


Continue reading

Last Updated on

Accumulating in this patient’s alveoli (MCQ)


A patient presents with a constant cough. A CT SCAN of the thorax reveals diffuse infiltrates in an alveolar pattern. The patient is known to be suffering from idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.
Which of the following substances would be expected to be accumulating in this patient's alveoli secondary to the disease caused by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis?

  • A. Glandular cells.
  • B. White blood cells.
  • C. Schiff positive materials
  • D. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
  • E. Red blood cells.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Help identify this distinct subset of scleroderma!! (MCQ)


A 49-year-old man, full-time ceramic sculptor, presented with increasing numbers of firm indurated plaques that produced a band-like tightening on his abdomen, which diminished his appetite and impaired his ability to breathe. His disease progressed to involve his upper thighs and lower legs, limiting his ability to walk.
He also complained of extensive esophageal reflux but no history suggestive of Raynaud's phenomenon.
On physical examination, the upper extremities demonstrated diffuse firm, indurated plaques from the dorsal hands to the shoulders .
There was extensive tightening and induration of the skin on the abdomen, back upper buttock, and the lower extremities from the hips down to the dorsal feet, with sparing of his face.
He was suspected of having a distinct subset of scleroderma characterised by the absence of vasculopathy, a male predisposition and more frequent tower gastrointestinal in votvements .

Which antibody when negative , helps identify this distinct subset of scleroderma?

  • A. ANCA.
  • B. Rheumatoid factor.
  • C. Anti centromere .
  • D. Antinuclear antibody.
  • E. Anti Fibroblast antibodies.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Tamoxifen case on Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (MCQ)


A 46-year-old female presents with irregular menstrual bleeding that has persisted recently. Her medical history consists of
2 full-term pregnancies and
invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast that was successfully treated with tamoxifen. 
She was recently diagnosed with type 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

Which of the following factors most likely increased this patient's risk for developing this cancer?
  • A. Family history of breast cancer.
  • B. Oral contraceptive use.
  • C. Her pre-premenopausal stat.
  • D. multiple pregnancies.
  • E. Tamoxifen used to treat breast cancer.

Check your answer ...

Continue reading

Last Updated on

Continuous IV Checklist

Administering Intravenous Push Medication Through an Existing Infusion (Continuous IV)


Start hand hygiene and wear a suitable glove.


Check doctor order and review patient file for allergies.


Check medication compatibilities with current active medications.


Verify rate of administration.


Start preparing the required dose.


Verify correct patient.


Assess IV for signs and symptoms of infiltration or phlebitis (and if present, stop until new IV site is obtained).


Turn off IV by turning off pump and/or clamping the tubing directly above the access port.


Swab access port with alcohol or other antiseptic agent according to institutional policy.


If medication is not compatible with IV solution, flush IV line with 2 to 5 mL of normal saline before administration of medication. If medication is compatible with IV solution, normal saline flush is not necessary; continue to next step.


Connect medication syringe to access port via needleless adaptor.


Pull back on plunger of syringe to observe blood return (which verifies placement of IV in vein).


Gently instill medication over required time frame (typically 2 to 5 minutes).


Assess patient carefully during administration for any adverse reactions.


Disconnect syringe when medication is completed.


Flush IV line with 3 to 5 mL of normal saline, instilling at same rate of medication administration in order to administer the medication left in tubing at proper infusion rate.


Turn IV back on or unclamp tubing, then readjust rate appropriately.


Dispose of syringe in sharps container.


Remove gloves, perform hand hygiene, and document medication administration.

Last Updated on

First Order Vs. Zero Order Kinetics

Trying to understand first order and zero order kinetics

{My own study points.}

First Order Kinetics

  • Higher plasma concentrations means higher metabolization rate.
  • Metabolism is directly proportional with drug concentrations.
  • Drug is eliminated from the body related to the plasma levels.
  • Constant half-life. (Metabolize 50% of drug)

Zero Order Kinetics

  • Higher plasma concentrations doesn't mean higher metabolization rate.
  • Metabolism is independent from plasma concentrations.
  • Drug concentration in the body increase with time disregarding the elimination rate leading to toxic side effects.
  • Constant rate of drug metabolism.


First order is Good, Zero order is BAD.

First order is occurring with most medications.

First order: constant proportion of the drug is eliminated per unit time.
Zero order: constant amount of the drug is eliminated per unit time.

Last Updated on