Accumulating in this patient’s alveoli (MCQ)


A patient presents with a constant cough. A CT SCAN of the thorax reveals diffuse infiltrates in an alveolar pattern. The patient is known to be suffering from idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.
Which of the following substances would be expected to be accumulating in this patient's alveoli secondary to the disease caused by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis?

  • A. Glandular cells.
  • B. White blood cells.
  • C. Schiff positive materials
  • D. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
  • E. Red blood cells.

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Help identify this distinct subset of scleroderma!! (MCQ)


A 49-year-old man, full-time ceramic sculptor, presented with increasing numbers of firm indurated plaques that produced a band-like tightening on his abdomen, which diminished his appetite and impaired his ability to breathe. His disease progressed to involve his upper thighs and lower legs, limiting his ability to walk.
He also complained of extensive esophageal reflux but no history suggestive of Raynaud's phenomenon.
On physical examination, the upper extremities demonstrated diffuse firm, indurated plaques from the dorsal hands to the shoulders .
There was extensive tightening and induration of the skin on the abdomen, back upper buttock, and the lower extremities from the hips down to the dorsal feet, with sparing of his face.
He was suspected of having a distinct subset of scleroderma characterised by the absence of vasculopathy, a male predisposition and more frequent tower gastrointestinal in votvements .

Which antibody when negative , helps identify this distinct subset of scleroderma?

  • A. ANCA.
  • B. Rheumatoid factor.
  • C. Anti centromere .
  • D. Antinuclear antibody.
  • E. Anti Fibroblast antibodies.

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Tamoxifen case on Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (MCQ)


A 46-year-old female presents with irregular menstrual bleeding that has persisted recently. Her medical history consists of
2 full-term pregnancies and
invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast that was successfully treated with tamoxifen. 
She was recently diagnosed with type 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

Which of the following factors most likely increased this patient's risk for developing this cancer?
  • A. Family history of breast cancer.
  • B. Oral contraceptive use.
  • C. Her pre-premenopausal stat.
  • D. multiple pregnancies.
  • E. Tamoxifen used to treat breast cancer.

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Continuous IV Checklist

Administering Intravenous Push Medication Through an Existing Infusion (Continuous IV)


Start hand hygiene and wear a suitable glove.


Check doctor order and review patient file for allergies.


Check medication compatibilities with current active medications.


Verify rate of administration.


Start preparing the required dose.


Verify correct patient.


Assess IV for signs and symptoms of infiltration or phlebitis (and if present, stop until new IV site is obtained).


Turn off IV by turning off pump and/or clamping the tubing directly above the access port.


Swab access port with alcohol or other antiseptic agent according to institutional policy.


If medication is not compatible with IV solution, flush IV line with 2 to 5 mL of normal saline before administration of medication. If medication is compatible with IV solution, normal saline flush is not necessary; continue to next step.


Connect medication syringe to access port via needleless adaptor.


Pull back on plunger of syringe to observe blood return (which verifies placement of IV in vein).


Gently instill medication over required time frame (typically 2 to 5 minutes).


Assess patient carefully during administration for any adverse reactions.


Disconnect syringe when medication is completed.


Flush IV line with 3 to 5 mL of normal saline, instilling at same rate of medication administration in order to administer the medication left in tubing at proper infusion rate.


Turn IV back on or unclamp tubing, then readjust rate appropriately.


Dispose of syringe in sharps container.


Remove gloves, perform hand hygiene, and document medication administration.

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First Order Vs. Zero Order Kinetics

Trying to understand first order and zero order kinetics

{My own study points.}

First Order Kinetics

  • Higher plasma concentrations means higher metabolization rate.
  • Metabolism is directly proportional with drug concentrations.
  • Drug is eliminated from the body related to the plasma levels.
  • Constant half-life. (Metabolize 50% of drug)

Zero Order Kinetics

  • Higher plasma concentrations doesn't mean higher metabolization rate.
  • Metabolism is independent from plasma concentrations.
  • Drug concentration in the body increase with time disregarding the elimination rate leading to toxic side effects.
  • Constant rate of drug metabolism.


First order is Good, Zero order is BAD.

First order is occurring with most medications.

First order: constant proportion of the drug is eliminated per unit time.
Zero order: constant amount of the drug is eliminated per unit time.

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The communication structure Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (ISBAR) was created to standardise the effective transfer of information in the US armed forces. ISBAR was adopted by the public health service in the 2000s




Introduction (Hello Dr. my name is) 

  • Who are you?
  • Where are you?
  • Patient's name, age, gender and department


Situation (What’s this about?) 

  • I'm calling because... (describe)
  • I have observed major changes... (ABCDE)
  • I have measured the following values...
  • (RR*, Sp020, pulse/heart rhythm, BPA, capillary refill time, etc...)
  • I have received test results...


Background (Brief & pertinent info) 

If it's urgent and/or you are concerned — speak up.

Brief and relevant case history

Admission diagnosis and date

Previous illnesses of significance

Relevant problems and treatment/interventions to date



Assessment (Your analysis and consideration of options) 

  • I think the problem/reason for the patient's condition is related to (respiration, circulation, neurology).
  • I don't know what the problem is but the patient's condition has deteriorated.
  • The patient is unstable, we need to do something.
  • I am concerned.


Recommendation (What do you want the physician to do?)

I suggest.../What interventions do you recommend?

  • Immediate intervention
  • Investigation/treatment
  • How often should I...

When should I next make contact? When will you be here?

Confirm messages and interventions with a closed loop.

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Doxorubicin chemo preparation

Doxorubicin MOA

Doxorubicin inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by intercalation between DNA base pairs by inhibition of topoisomerase II and by steric obstruction. Doxorubicin intercalates at points of local uncoiling of the double helix. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, it appears that direct binding to DNA (intercalation) and inhibition of DNA repair (topoisomerase II inhibition) result in blockade of DNA and RNA synthesis and fragmentation of DNA. Doxorubicin is also a powerful iron chelator; the iron-doxorubicin complex can bind DNA and cell membranes and produce free radicals that immediately cleave the DNA and cell membranes.


For those who prepare chemotherapy, we always need detailed guidelines for the preparation of Doxorubicin, and all the chemo handling and preparing precautions.

Does your preparation depend on the route of administration?

Do we use the beads in all preparations, or only for the chemoembolization? 

Do we only need a chemo vertical laminar flow hoods, or the equipment we use should ensure closed system?


Doxorubicin is like any other hazardous drug that requires to be prepared under certain conditions stated in USP 800. You may refer to the latest version online. It should answer all your question regarding the precautions you must follow. Closed system devices are not enough by itself to prepare biohazard meds including chemotherapy without a primary engineering control device.

Doxorubicin is mixed with beads for particular procedure called chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma and its given as intra-arterial injection by a trained provider (usually radiologist). But it is never mixed with beads for other routes.

Doxorubicin is given intravenously as a push, intermittent infusion, or continue infusion. This is usually decided by the treatment protocol you would use. For example, in AC protocol (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) for breast carcinoma, doxorubicin is given as IV push over 10-12 minutes. While in a more complicated protocol such as R-EPOCH, it is combined with other chemotherapy drugs and is infused as a continuous infusion over 24 hours for multiple days.

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How tech is transforming healthcare

How tech is transforming healthcare



Data captured from health devices could provide precious information to provide accurate care to the patients.
As we noticed wearable gadgets are increasing in numbers as well as accuracy.


Augmented Reality

Allowing the healthcare providers to jump instantly between patients, or view organs, or even project radiology images over the body during operations to reduce mistakes.
Combining live video-streaming with Augmented Reality surgeons carrying out operations are able to consult the other side of the world. Who says that you can’t be in two places at once?


Online Consultation

The patient, who can afford it, can always consult with their preferred healthcare providers online and even afford a sort of on-call medical service, other than emergency services.

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