Antiprotozoal drugs

Antiprotozoal drugs

Antimalarials

Chloroquine:

Indications: chemoprophylaxis and treatment of malaria; rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus

Contraindications: Hemolytic Anemia from Pyruvate Kinase and G6PD Deficiencies, Maculopathy, Retinal Disorder, Visual Field Defect.

Dose and Administration: Prophylaxis of malaria, preferably started 1 week before entering endemic area and continued for 4 weeks after leaving, 300 mg once weekly; infant up to 12 weeks body-weight under 6 kg, 37.5 mg once weekly; 12 weeks–1 year body-weight 6–10 kg, 75 mg once weekly; child 1–4 years body-weight 10–16 kg, 112.5 mg once weekly; 4–8 years body-weight 16– 25 kg, 150 mg once weekly; 8–13 years body-weight 25–45 kg, 225 mg once weekly; over 13 years body-weight over 45 kg, adult dose.

 

Mefloquine:

Indications: Chloroquine Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Prevention, Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, and Plasmodium Vivax Malaria Prevention.

Contraindications: Depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Psychiatric Disturbance, Psychotic Disorder, Schizophrenia, and Seizure Disorder.

Dose and Administration: Prophylaxis of malaria, preferably started 21/2 weeks before entering endemic area and continued for 4 weeks after leaving (see notes above), adult and child body-weight over 45 kg, 250 mg once weekly; body-weight 6–16 kg, 62.5 mg once weekly; body-weight 16–25 kg, 125 mg once weekly; body-weight 25–45 kg, 187.5 mg once weekly.

HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE SULPHATE:

Indications: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, Malaria Prevention, Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Prevention, Plasmodium Malariae Malaria, Plasmodium Malariae Malaria Prevention, Plasmodium Ovale Malaria, Plasmodium Ovale Malaria Prevention, Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Plasmodium Vivax Malaria Prevention, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Contraindications: Deficiency of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Hemolytic Anemia from Pyruvate Kinase and G6PD Deficiencies, Maculopathy, Retinal Disorder, Visual Field Defect.

Dose and Administration: Administered on expert advice, initially 400 mg daily in divided doses; maintenance 200–400 mg daily; max. 6.5 mg/kg daily (but not exceeding 400 mg daily), see recommendations above; child up to 6.5 mg/kg daily (max. 400 mg daily).

 

Amoebicides

METRONIDAZOLE:

Indications: Intestinal amoebiasis, Extra-intestinal amoebiasis (including liver abscess), Urogenital trichomoniasis, Giardiasis.

Contraindications: Lactating Mother, Alcohol Intoxication, Alcoholism, Lower Seizure Threshold, Peripheral Neuropathy, Seizure Disorder, Severe Hepatic Disease.

Dose and Administration: By mouth, invasive intestinal amoebiasis, 800 mg every 8 hours for 5 days; child 1–3 years 200 mg every 8 hours; 3–7 years 200 mg every 6 hours; 7–10 years 400 mg every 8 hours. Extra-intestinal amoebiasis (including liver abscess), 400–800 mg every 8 hours for 5–10 days; child 1–3 years 100–200 mg every 8 hours; 3–7 years 100–200 mg every 6 hours; 7–10 years 200–400 mg every 8 hours. Urogenital trichomoniasis, 200 mg every 8 hours for 7 days or 400–500 mg every 12 hours for 5–7 days, or 2 g as a single dose; child 1–3 years 50 mg every 8 hours for 7 days; 3–7 years 100 mg every 12 hours; 7–10 years 100 mg every 8 hours. Giardiasis, 2 g daily for 3 days or

400 mg 3 times daily for 5 days or 500 mg twice daily for 7–10 days; child 1–3 years 500 mg daily for 3 days; 3–7 years 600–800 mg daily; 7–10 years 1 g daily.

 

TINIDAZOLE:

Indications: Acute Intestinal Amebiasis due to Entamoeba Histolytica, Bacterial Vaginosis, Giardiasis, and Liver Abscess Amebiasis due to Entamoeba Histolytica, Trichomoniasis.

Contraindications: Lactating Mother, Pregnancy, Epilepsy, And Peripheral Neuropathy.

Dose and Administration: Intestinal amoebiasis, 2 g daily for 2–3 days; child 50–60 mg/kg daily for 3 days. Amoebic involvement of liver, 1.5–2 g daily for 3–6 days; child 50–60 mg/kg daily for 5 days. Urogenital trichomoniasis and giardiasis, single 2 g dose; child single dose of 50–75 mg/kg (repeated once if necessary).

 

About the Author

Pharmacist interested in improving the health outcome for every single case he meets.

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