Centrally Acting Antihypertensive Drugs

Methyldopa: Indications: hypertension Contraindications: contraindicated in patients with active hepatic disease, such as acute hepatitis and active cirrhosis, with liver disorders previously associated with methyldopa therapy. on therapy with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Dose and Administration: Initially 250 mg 2–3 times daily, increased gradually at intervals of at least 2…

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Aminosalicylates: MESALAZINE: Indications: is an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammation of the digestive tract ulcerative colitis and mild to moderate Crohn’s disease. Contraindications: severe hepatic impairment. Dose and Administration: for ulcerative colitis 1-2 tablet 3 times daily before meals in acute attacks, for long treatment of ulcerative colitis 500mg…

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Antiemetics are a diverse group of drugs used to treat or prevent nausea and vomiting, including that associated with cancer therapy, anaesthesia and surgery, and motion sickness. Antiemetics described here include: the dopamine antagonists’ metoclopramide and chlorpromazine hydrochloride; antihistamines such as Dimenhydrinate, Meclizine Hydrochloride & Promethazine Hydrochloride. The choice of…

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Vasodilator Antihypertensive Drugs

Hydralazine: Indications: moderate to severe hypertension (adjunct); heart failure (with long-acting nitrate), hypertensive crisis (including during pregnancy) Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to hydralazine; coronary artery disease; mitral valvular rheumatic heart disease. Dose and Administration: By slow intravenous injection, hypertension with renal complications and hypertensive crisis, 5–10 mg diluted with 10 mL sodium…

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SILYMARIN: Indications: acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty degeneration, prophylaxis and treatment of toxin drug induced liver disorders. Dose and Administration: 3-6 tablets daily on divided doses (210mg-420mg)

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Supraventricualr arrhythmias: ADENOSINE: Indications: Conversion to sinus rhythm of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including that associated with accessory bypass tracts (Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome). When clinically advisable, appropriate vagal maneuvers (e.g., Valsalva maneuver), should be attempted prior to Adenosine administration Contraindications: Adenosine injection is contraindicated in: Second- or third-degree A-V block (except…

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Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs: A class of drugs, also called beta-blockers, that block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), a key agent in the “sympathetic” portion of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system.

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Pepsin, Lipase, Amylase & Protease: Indications: dyspepsia due to gastric, pancreatic, biliary and intestinal dysfunction. Contraindications: hypersensitivity to any ingredient. Dose and Administration: 2 tablets 3 times daily within or after meals. Ursodeoxycholic acid: Indications: for the treatment of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, treatment of gallstone disease in patients…

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Diuretics

Diuretics promote the excretion of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. They are used in the treatment of heart failure or in hepatic, renal, or pulmonary disease when salt and water retention has resulted in oedema or ascites. Diuretics are also used, either alone, or in association with other agents, in the treatment of hypertension. The principal groups of diuretics are thiazides, ‘Loop’ or ‘high – ceiling’ diuretics، potassium sparing diuretics, osmotic diuretics, Mercurial diuretics and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

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