Female sex hormones

Oestrogens are necessary for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics; they also stimulate myometrial hypertrophy with endometrial hyperplasia. In terms of oestrogenic activity natural oestrogens (estradiol (oestradiol), estrone (oestrone), and estriol (oestriol)) have a more appropriate profile for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) than synthetic oestrogens (ethinylestradiol (ethinyloestradiol) and mestranol). Tibolone has oestrogenic, progestogenic and weak androgenic activity.

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EXCEL – Measuring maximums, minimums, and quartiles

To get the minimum value (lowest value of the list)


To get the max value (which would be the biggest value of the list)


To get the values that are in the 25% place

This is called the first quartile value so we can


To get the values that are in the 50% place

This would be the 2nd quartile and to get it we can use

=quartile(range,2) this would also be the median

To get the values that are in the 75% place





Calculating mean and median and mode values

To have the average of a certain data you can use the following


This will give you the average data in the range.

To get the median which is the value exactly in the middle.
If the values are even number, then the median would be the average of the 2 values in the middle.

To get the mode; which is the most common value in the range.

To get multiple most common values
=mode.mult(range) you can use after typing this formula what is called an array function using ctrl+shift+enter … this would be after selecting 2 cells.




The adrenal cortex normally secretes hydrocortisone (cortisol) which has glucocorticoid activity and weak mineralocorticoid activity. It also secretes the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. In deficiency states, physiological replacement is best achieved with a combination of hydrocortisone and the mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone; hydrocortisone alone does not usually provide sufficient mineralocorticoid activity for complete replacement.

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Thyroid and antithyroid drugs

Thyroid hormones are used in hypothyroidism (myxoedema), and also in diffuse non-toxic goitre, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (lymphadenoid goitre), and thyroid carcinoma. Neonatal hypothyroidism requires prompt treatment for normal development. Levothyroxine sodium (thyroxine sodium) is the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy. In infants and children with congenital hypothyroidism and juvenile myxoedema, the dose of levothyroxine should be titrated according to clinical response, growth assessment, and measurements of plasma thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

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Drugs Used in Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus occurs because of a lack of insulin or resistance to its action. It is diagnosed by measuring fasting or random blood-glucose concentration (and occasionally by glucose tolerance test). Although there are many subtypes, the two principal classes of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), occurs as a result of a deficiency of insulin following autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Patients with type 1 diabetes require administration of insulin. Type 2 diabetes, also referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), is due either to reduced secretion of insulin or to peripheral resistance to the action of insulin. Although patients may be controlled on diet alone, many also require oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin (or both) to maintain satisfactory control.

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Antiviral drugs

The majority of virus infections resolve spontaneously in immunocompetent subjects. A number of specific treatments for viral infections are available, particularly for the immunocompromised.

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