Cough Preparations

Cough Preparations Cough Preparations

Expectorant and demulcent cough preparations

Expectorants are claimed to promote expulsion of bronchial secretions but there is no evidence that any drug can specifically facilitate expectoration. The assumption that sub-emetic doses of expectorants, such as ammonium chloride, ipecacuanha, and squill promote expectoration is a myth. However, a simple expectorant mixture may serve a useful placebo function and has the advantage of being inexpensive.

Demulcent cough preparations contain soothing substances such as syrup or glycerol and some patients believe that such preparations relieve a dry irritating cough. Preparations such as simple linctus have the advantage of being harmless and inexpensive; pediatric simple linctus is particularly useful in children. Compound preparations are on sale to the public for the treatment of cough and colds; the rationale for some is dubious.

GUAIFENESIN:

Indications: Guaifenesin is used to help coughs caused by colds or similar illnesses clear mucus or phlegm (pronounced flem) from the chest. It works by thinning the mucus or phlegm in the lungs. Guaifenesin is used to reduce chest congestion caused by the common cold, infections, or allergies.

Contraindications: There are no adequate studies

Dose and Administration: Adults—200 to 400 milligrams (mg) every four hours. Children 6 to 12 years of age—100 to 200 mg every four hours. Children 4 to 6 years of age—300 mg every twelve hours. Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended.

Guaifenesin and Dextromethorphan:

Indications: The combination of dextromethorphan and guaifenesin is used to treat cough and chest congestion caused by the common cold, infections, or allergies.

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient in Guaifenesin DM Elixir, taking or have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the last 14 days or taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Dose and Administration: Each 5ml contains 100mg Guaifenesin and 10mg Dextromethorphan. Children 6 to 12 years of age 5ml every four hours. Adults 10ml every four hours.

Guaifenesin and Theophylline:

Indications: Preventing and treating symptoms and blockage of airway due to asthma or other lung diseases such as emphysema or bronchitis.

Guaifenesin/Theophylline are a combination xanthine derivative and expectorant. The xanthine derivative works by relaxing the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchial tubes (air passages) of the lungs, allowing the tubes to widen, and making breathing easier

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient in Guaifenesin/Theophylline.

Dose and Administration: adults 15-30ml 2-3 times daily. Children over 45kg the same dose as adults. Over 8 years old 15ml 2-3 times daily. Under 8 years old 2.5ml per each 4.5kg body weight 2-3 times daily.

Guaifenesin/Dextromethorphan/Pseudoephedrine:

Indications: Relieving congestion, cough, and throat and airway irritation due to colds, flu, or hay fever.

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient in Guaifenesin DM Elixir, taking or have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the last 14 days or taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Dose and Administration: Each 5ml contains 100mg Guaifenesin 30mg Pseudoephedrine and 10mg Dextromethorphan. Children 6 to 12 years of age 5ml every four hours. Adults’ 10ml every four hours.

Diphenhydramine/Menthol:

Indications: control of cough and allergy and hay fever and to reduce nasal congestion symptoms.

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient

Dose and Administration: children 1 to 6 years 5ml every 6 hours. From 6 to 12 years 10ml every 6 hours.

Diphenhydramine/Ammonium Chloride/Menthol:

Indications: for controlling cough due to colds and allergy and to reduce nasal congestion symptoms.

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient

Dose and Administration: each 5ml syrup contains 14mg Diphenhydramine, 135mg Ammonium chloride, and 1.1mg Menthol. Children 1 to 6 years 2.5ml every 6 hours, 6 to 12 years 5ml every 6 hours and for adults 5 to 10ml every 6 hours.

Cough Suppressants

Dextromethorphane:

Indications: Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant. It works by loosening mucus and lung secretions in the chest and making coughs more productive. Temporarily relieving cough due to the common cold, upper respiratory tract infections, sinus inflammation, sore throat, or bronchitis.

Contraindications: if allergic to any ingredient in Dextromethorphan or taking or have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor within the last 14 days.

Dose and Administration: each 5ml contains 15mg of Dextromethorphane. Children above 2 years 2.5ml to 5ml up to 4 times daily. Adult’s 5ml to 10ml 4 times daily.

Thyme fluid extract and primula root fluid extract:

Indications: used in cough, bronchitis, bronchial catarrh and mucous obstruction of the bronchi.

Contraindications: in case of allergy to thyme, primula root extract or any of the additives. Also in epileptic patients or liver impairment patients.

Dose and Administration: the usual adult dose is one spoon every 2-3 hours up to 6 times per day. Children half of the adult dose.

Thyme fluid extract:

Indications: used in whooping cough, bronchitis, and bronchial catarrh Contraindications: in case of allergy to thyme or any of the additives. Also in epileptic patients or liver impairment patients.

Dose and Administration: the usual adult dose is two spoons 3 times per day. Children half of the adult dose.

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