Acetaminophen toxicity is a result of the formation of a reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinonimine (NAPQI), the product of a minor pathway involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen. At therapeutic doses, the majority of acetaminophen metabolism occurs via glucuronidation and sulfation to nontoxic metabolites. In overdose, the nontoxic routes of metabolism become saturated and the metabolism of acetaminophen to NAPQI becomes a major metabolic pathway. The formation of NAPQI occurs primarily via oxidation by hepatic CYP2E1 and, to a lesser extent, by CYP3A4, CYP2A6, and CYP1A2. A fraction of the total NAPQI may be a result of renal CYP2E1 metabolism.
The FDA has issued a Safety Alert restricting the use of codeine and tramadol in children. Children under 12 years and some adolescents younger than 18 years (especially those with certain genetic factors, obesity, or obstructive sleep apnea and other breathing problems) should not use medicines containing these drugs because of increased medical risks, including slowed or difficult breathing and death. The FDA is also recommending against the use of codeine and tramadol medicines in breastfeeding mothers due to possible harm to their infants, including excess sleepiness, serious breathing problems, or death.
An infographic that looks at the history of Pharmacovigilance and its evolution over the 20th century in response to serious adverse events and patient safety
Source: Fentanyl Patch Overdose – Case Scenario – Med Ed 101
Less than 50% of the U.S. population obtains the seasonal influenza vaccine, and the vaccine does not confer perfect immunity. There are three types of influenza, plus numerous variations. Practitioners should be confident in the use of antiviral agents in patients with influenza. The most recent guidelines recommend the use of nonpharmacologic management and neuraminidase inhibitors to either prevent the transmission of influenza or treat the infection. Pharmacotherapy is based on an understanding of which
The reviewers point to other limitations, including that all studies were short-term, lasting less than 6 months, and that all studies on effective drugs had more than 9% of participants drop out due to adverse effects.
Many Students Reluctant to Use Asthma Inhalers at School
Source: Safe Disposal of Medicines > Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know
The designated C/N assigned is responsible for ensuring an effective and service